Thursday, 3 September 2015

Operating System

                       What are the types of system software?

     System software consist of the program that control or maintain the operations of a computer and its devices. Two types of system software are operating system and utility programs. An operating system(OS) contains instructions that work together to coordinates all the activities among computer hardware resources. A utility program performs maintenance-type tasks, usually related to managing a computer, its devices, or its programs.

               What are the functions of an operating system?

     The operating system provides a user interface, manage programs, manage memory, coordinates tasks, configures devices, establish an internet connections and monitors performance. The user interfaces controls how data and instructions are entered and how information is displayed. Two types of user interface are a command-line interface and a graphical user interface(GUI). Managing programs refer to how many users, and how many programs, an operating system can support at one time. An operating system can be single user/single tasking, single user/multitasking,multi-user, or multiprocessing. Memory management optimizes the use of random access memory(RAM). Virtual memory allocates a portion of a storage medium to function as additional RAM. Coordinating tasks determines the order in which tasks are processed. Configuring devices involved loading each device's driver when a user boots the computer. A driver is a program that tells the operating system how to communicate with a specific device. Establishing an internet connection sets up a connection between a computer and an internet access provider. A performance monitor is a program that assesses and reports information about computer resources and devices.

       What is the purpose of the utilities included with most      operating system?

Most operating system include several built-in utility programs. A file manager performs functions related to file management. A search utility attempts to locate a file on your computer based on criteria you specify. An image viewer displays, copies, and prints the contents of a graphics file. A personal firewall detects and protects a personal computer from unauthorized instrusions. An uninstaller removes a program and any associated entries in the system files. A disk scanner searches for and removes unnecessary files. A disk defragmenter reorganizes the files and unused space on a computer's hard disk. A diagnostic utility compiles and reports technical information about a computer's hardware and certain system software programs. A backup utility is used to copy, or back up, selected files or an entire hard disk to another storage medium. A screen saver displays a moving image or blank screen if no keyboard or mouse activity occurs for a specified time.

        What are features of several stand-alone
       operating system?

 A stand-alone operating system is a complete operating system that works on a desktop computer, notebook computer, or mobile computing device. Stand-alone operating system include Windows XP, Windows Vista, Mac OS X, UNIX, and Linux. Windows XP is a fast, reliable Windows operating system, providing better performance, increased security, and a simpler look than previous Windows version. Windows Vista, successor to Windows XP, is a Microsoft's fastest, most reliable and efficient operating system to date, offering quicker program start up, built-in diagnostic, automatic recovery, improved security, and enhanced searching and organizing capabilities. Mac OS X is a multitasking GUI operating system available only for Apple computers. Unix is a multitasking operating system that is flexible and powerful. Linux is a popular, multitasking UNIX-type operating system that is open source software, which means its code is available to the public for use, modification, and redistribution.

          What devices use embedded operating system?

Most smart phones and small devices have an embedded operating system that resides on a ROM chip. Popular embedded operating system include Windows Embedded CE, Windows Mobile, Palm OS, BlackBerry, embedded Linux, and Symbian OS. Windows Embedded CE is a scaled-down Windows operating system designed for use on communications, entertainment and computing devices with limited functionality. Windows Mobile, an operating system based on Windows Embedded CE, works on specific types of devices, such as smart phones and PDAs, called a POCKET PC. Palm OS is an operating system used on smart phone and PDAs. The BlackBerry operating system runs on handheld devices supplied by RIM. Embedded Linux is a scaled-down Linux operating system for smart phones, PDAs, and other devices. Symbian OS is an open source multitasking operating system designed for smart phones.

       What is the purpose of several stand-alone
      utility programs?

Stand-alone utility programs offer improvements over features built into the operating system or provide features not included in the operating system. An antivirus program protects computers againts a virus, or potentially damaging computer program, by identifying and removing any computer viruses. A spyware remover detects and deletes spyware and delete spyware and similar programs. An adware remover detects and deletes adware. An anti-spam program attempts to remove spam before it reaches your inbox. Web filtering software restricts access to certain material on the web. A phising filter warns or block you from potentially fraudelent or suspicious web sites. A pop-up blocker stops pop-up ads from displaying on web pages. A file compression utility shrinks the size of a file. A file conversion utility transforms the contents of a file from one format to another. A media player allows you to view images and animation, listen to audio, and watch video files on a computer. CD/DVD burning software writes on a recordable or rewriteable CD or DVD. A personal computer maintenance utility identifies and fixes operating system or disk problems and improves a computers's performance.

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